The Bird Study and Protection Programme is among MES’s oldest programmes, focusing on a portion of the Macedonian avifauna. Birds present a remarkable indicator of an ecosystem’s health, and hence, the knowledge of their populations entails knowledge of our environment. Macedonian bird protection activities in MES commenced with the implementation of the 2003 Vulture Conservation Project. Besides vulture conservation, MES in the last decade worked on developing a methodology for monitoring common bird species, implementing conservation measures aimed at given bird species (such as setting up artificial nests for the eastern imperial eagle and the lesser kestrel), identifying and monitoring Important Bird Areas in Macedonia, and also comparing and analysing national and EU legislation as regards bird protection. In addition to the scientific work, the programme also focuses on raising public awareness of the locals in terms of bird protection and improving cooperation with the institutions.